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Chemistry LibreTexts


Dopamine (DA), 4,5-dihydroxyphenethylamine or 4-(2-aminoethyl)1,2-benzenediol, is a known neurotransmitter that is involved in the chemical transmission of nerve impulses in the mammalian brain. It is a member of the catecholamine family and a precursor to epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) in the biosynthetic pathways.

DA has a molecular formula of C8H11NO2 and a formula weight of 153.18 [ref. 1]. It is a water-soluble hormone released by the hypothalamus. Imbalance in dopamine activity can cause brain dysfunction related to two major disorders, Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia [ref. 2,3]. Researchers are also looking at dopamine neurotransmission in drug abuse ranging from stimulants, such as amphetamines and cocaine, to depressants, such as morphine and other opioids, and alcohol [ref. 3].

Several amine neurotransmitters such as DA, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), adrenaline and serotonin are electroactive so that they can be monitored electrochemically. Most undergo a chemical reaction following the initial electron transfer step, an ec mechanism, as evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in this experiment. In biological fluids, prior separation with HPLC is recommended in conjunction with an electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD). Online illustrative applications can be found at

Great strides in learning about the role and fate of DA and other neurotransmitters in brains have come about in recent years due to the ability to monitor these compounds in-vivo. The major breakthrough making this possible came when Adams and co-workers [ref. 4] implanted small carbon electrodes (fibers) in rat brain to detect in-vivo catecholamine neurotransmitters. The development and application of the methodology are discussed in “Probing Brain Chemistry: Voltammetry Comes of Age” [ref. 5]. This article is available online: and is a recommended reading as background to this experiment. Venton and Wightman [ref. 6] in a more recent article propose calling this new subject area “psychoanalytical chemistry” in which sensors, like microelectrodes, can detect neurotransmitter dopamine and determine how its neurochemistry affects and correlates with animal behavior.