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Synthesis of Aldehydes & Ketones

Aldehydes and ketones can be prepared using a wide variety of reactions. Although these reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections, they are listed here as a summary and to help with planning multistep synthetic pathways. Please use the appropriate links to see more details about the reactions.

Oxidation of 1o alcohols with PCC to form aldehydes

 

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Hydration of an alkyne to form aldehydes

Anti-Markovnikov addition of a hydroxyl group to an alkyne forms an aldehyde. The addition of a hydroxyl group to an alkyne causes tautomerization which subsequently forms a carbonyl.

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Reduction of an ester, acid chloride or nitrile to form aldehydes

 

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Oxidation of 2o alcohols to form ketones

Typically uses Jones reagent (CrO3 in H2SO4) but many other reagents can be used

 

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Hydration of an alkyne to form ketones

The addition of a hydroxyl group to an alkyne causes tautomerization which subsequently forms a carbonyl. Markovnikov addition of a hydroxyl group to an alkyne forms a ketone.

 

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Friedel-Crafts acylation to form a ketone

 

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Reaction of Grignard reagents with nitriles to form ketones

 

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Alkenes can be cleaved using ozone (O3) to form aldehydes and/or ketones

 

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This is an example of a Ozonolysis reaction.

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